Disappearing Rio Grande

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Why Follow the Rio Grande

by Colin McDonald | Feb. 11, 2015

The Rio Grande is disappearing. Demand for water is growing as snow packs shrink, rain patterns shift and average temperatures rise faster than they ever have in the past 11,000 years.

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Magic-Carpet Ride, Day 4

Colin paddles down the Rio Grande upstream of Creede. Photo by: Erich Schlegel

After an all-day, 21-mile hike down from Stony Pass yesterday, I was excited to rest my feet and start paddling on the Rio Grande today.  

I planned to spend three days getting to Creede, about 30 miles downriver from the well-named Thirty Mile Campground.   

I had not planned on the river flowing at 1,100 cubic feet per second and nearly topping its banks.  Even after a late start, the magic-carpet ride of the Rio Grande delivered me to Creede by mid-afternoon. 

Along the way, I got an up-close view of where the West Fork Complex Fire burned to the river’s edge. I tried to imagine what it would have been like to see all of those thousands of trees on fire. 

Yesterday, I met Elmer and ShaRay Rock. The father and daughter were out spotting bighorn sheep in preparation for the hunting season, which will begin in August.

ShaRay won the hunting lottery and drew a ram tag this year.  As a member of the Ute tribe, she would have a week head start on the other hunters, but it would not matter if she did not know where the sheep were.  

Elmer described the mass exodus of animals out of the Rio Grande National Forest as fires raged last summer. He speculated about what the charred remains of the trees and new growth of plants would mean for the animals this year. It all added to the puzzle of trying for a successful hunt.   

But no matter what, he knows the lack of snow and rain is affecting everything. He said the grasses in the meadows are about half as high as usual and the black flies and mosquitos are not nearly as bad as usual. 

Tensions are rising as water supplies dwindle, he said.  

“People are going to end up getting shot about water again,” he said.   

With that in mind, I soaked up the fast ride to Creede.  By the afternoon, the water levels were already dropping.

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Air temperature (°C)
Conductivity (µS/cm)
Depth of Measurement (meters)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L)
E. coli colonies per 100 ml
pH level
Secchi disk transparency (meters)
Water temperature (°C)

What do these numbers mean?

As they travel, Colin and Erich are taking water samples for the following periodic water quality tests. In partnership with The Meadows Center for Water and the Environment’s Texas Stream Team Program at Texas State University, the results will be added to a public database it helps maintain for research and monitoring water quality.

Air/Water Temperature
Temperature impacts everything from the amount of oxygen in the water and the metabolism of aquatic species to how easily compounds dissolve. Most species can tolerate slow seasonal changes but can go into thermal stress or shock when temperatures change by more than one or two degrees Celsius in 24 hours.
pH Level
The pH scale measures water’s acidity and runs on a logarithmic scale from 1.0 to 14.0, with 7.0 considered neutral. Anything below 7 is acidic and anything above is basic. A pH range of 6.5 to 8.2 is optimal for most organisms.
Dissolved Oxygen
Oxygen is just as vital for life below the surface as it is above. The amount needed varies according to species and stage of life, but generally 5.0 to 6.0 milligrams per liter is required for growth and activity. Levels bellow 3.0 mg/L are stressful to most fish species and levels below 2.0 mg/L for an extended period of time will cause fish kills.
Conductivity levels depend mainly on how easily the rocks and soils a stream passes through dissolve. For example, high levels of conductivity are often found with water that passes through limestone and gypsum because it will pick up the calcium, carbonate and sulfate from those rock formations. However, discharges into a water body, such as a failing sewage system, can also raise the conductivity because of the presence of chloride, phosphate and nitrate.
Water Clarity
Turbid water can come from high levels of sediment or plankton. Both will block sunlight to aquatic plants and the sediments can carry pollution such as nutrients and pesticides. Low levels of turbidity may indicate a healthy and well-functioning ecosystem. High levels can be an indicator of runoff from eroding soils or blooms of microscopic plankton due to high levels of nutrients.
E. coli
E. coli bacteria are found in the colon of warm-blooded animals. If the pathogen is found in water it’s an indicator that fecal mater from humans, pets, livestock or wildlife is also present and may pose a public health threat. For drinking water the standard is to have no E. coli. But almost all non-treated water has some E. coli in it and at low levels it does not represent a substantial health threat to those who swim or wade in it. The Environmental Protection Agency has set the water quality standard for these types of activities at 126 colony forming units per 100 mL.
Secchi disk transparency
The Secchi disk is a plain white, circular disk used to measure water transparency in bodies of water. It is lowered into the water of a lake or other water body until it can be no longer seen. This depth of disappearance, called the Secchi disk transparency, is a conventional measure of the transparency of the water.

While making his way to the Gulf of Mexico, Colin will be periodically activating a device that uses satellite technology to share his current location. Use this map to see where he traveled on this day.

Check-In Time of Check-In (CST) Latitude Longitude
#1 9:18 a.m. 37.72433 -107.259
#2 10:08 a.m. 37.74139 -107.17953
#3 10:51 a.m. 37.77475 -107.1411
#4 11:15 a.m. 37.77085 -107.12802
#5 11:36 a.m. 37.74603 -107.10287
#6 1:12 p.m. 37.76236 -107.01137
#7 3:08 p.m. 37.81704 -106.91502


To report on and understand the haphazard irrigation system the Rio Grande has become and the changes it is going through, Colin decided the best approach would be to travel the length of the Rio Grande by foot and small boat.

He knew it would give him a unique perspective on a river that few understand. It did require many long days of moving slowly and camping on muddy riverbanks, but Colin likes that sort of thing.

The benefit was it provided access to people who wanted to share their stories and experiences with the Rio Grande. Via Facebook and chance encounters, Colin made instant friends who opened their homes. They provided help from loaning their trucks to their cell phone contact lists to help tell the story of the Rio Grande.

The trip would not have been possible without their help, along with the dedicated assistance of David Lozano, Jason Jones and Daniel Dibona, who drove thousands of miles to get people and boats in place.


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